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WebThis site uses cookies to offer you a better browsing experience. Find out more on how we use cookies WebWhat is Lorem Ipsum? Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Lorem Ipsum has been the industry's standard dummy text ever since the s, when an unknown printer took a galley of type and scrambled it Web02/03/ · Zoho offers a suite of online web applications geared towards increasing your productivity and offering easy collaboration. Zoho's online office tools include a word processor, spreadsheet application, presentation tool, hosted wiki, notebook, CRM etc WebChange under McBride happened quickly. On August 26, , he announced at the company's annual Forum conference in Las Vegas that Caldera International was changing its name to The SCO Group. He did this via a multimedia display in which an image of Caldera was shattered and replaced by The SCO Group's logo, which was a slightly WebPubMed® comprises more than 34 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites ... read more

On August 25, , Edward N. Cahn , a former United States district judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and a counsel for the law firm of Blank Rome , was appointed Chapter 11 trustee for The SCO Group. In October , a restructuring requested by trustee Cahn led to the termination of McBride and the elimination of the CEO position; the existing COO, Jeff Hunsaker, became the top executive in the company.

Vaughan-Nichols in Computerworld , who wrote, "You have to give McBride credit. While I dislike SCO, he did an amazing job of fighting a hopeless battle. It's a pity he was working so hard and so well for such a fundamentally wrong cause.

SCO had appealed the August summary judgment against it in SCO v. Novell and eventually an appeals court had ruled that a trial had to be held on the issue. The sale was closed on April 11, , with Stephen Norris Capital Partners and MerchantBridge being the final buyers, and UnXis was formed. The SCO Group's litigation rights against IBM and Novell did not transfer, as UnXis said it had no involvement or interest in such activities.

The TSG Group did not have employees per se ; any at the Utah site not hired by UnXis were let go. However, in November the bankruptcy trustee decided to go on with the surviving contractual claims against IBM, saying that "the Novell ruling does not impact the viability of the estate's claims against IBM. IBM case had previously been closed pending the result of the SCO v. Novell case. Nonetheless, there was no actual business being conducted by the TSG Group, and in August they filed to convert their status from Chapter 11 reorganization to Chapter 7 liquidation , [56] stating that "there is no reasonable chance of 'rehabilitation'".

In June , a judge granted the motion of the brankruptcy trustee and reopened consideration of SCO v. UnXis changed its name to Xinuos in , and despite SCO v. IBM having been reopened in the courts, reiterated that it had no interest in litigation. McBride turned his purchase of SCO's mobility assets into a company called Shout TV Inc. in In August , word came of a possible final settlement in the SCO v. Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware, which had been handling the case all along.

After 18½ years, SCO v. IBM was finally over. As it happened, another suit against IBM was still now active, from Xinuos, which earlier in had reversed direction from their past disavowals of litigation interest and had filed suit against both IBM and Red Hat, re-alleging old SCO claims about IBM and Project Monterey and alleging new claims that IBM and Red Hat had cornered the operating system market for cloud computing. In any case, the story of The SCO Group was complete. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Defunct American software company. This article is about the owners of the SCO name beginning For the original SCO company, see Santa Cruz Operation. Traded as. Lindon, Utah. Darl McBride , CEO Ralph Yarro III , Chairman Ken Nielsen, CFO Ryan E.

Tibbitts, General Counsel Chris Sontag, head of SCOsource Jeff Hunsaker, President of SCO Operations Inc Sandy Gupta Andy Nagle. UnixWare OpenServer SCOoffice Server Me Inc. mobility products SCO Mobile Server HipCheck.

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PC World. June 17, The Business Journals. Sports Business Journal. October 31, IBM settlement deal is done, but zombie case shuffles on elsewhere". August 30, Linux and Open Source. November 8, Triangle Business Journal. Categories : Caldera company Defunct software companies of the United States Defunct companies based in Utah SCO—Linux disputes Software companies established in establishments in Utah Software companies disestablished in disestablishments in Utah Companies that have filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy Companies that filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in Hidden categories: Pages using the Graph extension Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Use mdy dates from December Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in.

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Nasdaq : SCOX later pink sheets as SCOXQ. Computer software. Lindon, Utah , United States. Timeline SCO—SGI code dispute of SCOsource. SCO v. Supply reduction includes: interdiction, eradication, and law enforcement; demand reduction includes: education, prevention, and treatment.

The War on Drugs is often called a policy failure. Critics of the War on Drugs have noted that it has done little to reduce the amount of deaths caused by drug use. This is despite the fact that the Obama, Trump, and Biden Administrations and prior administrations have perpetuated strict drug scheduling and mandatory minimum sentences from drug users that critics say have very little effect on reducing drug use and deaths. Several authors believe that the United States' federal and state governments have chosen wrong methods for combatting the distribution of illicit substances.

Aggressive, heavy-handed enforcement funnels individuals through courts and prisons; instead of treating the cause of the addiction, the focus of government efforts has been on punishment. By making drugs illegal rather than regulating them, the War on Drugs creates a highly profitable black market. Jefferson Fish has edited scholarly collections of articles offering a wide variety of public health based and rights based alternative drug policies.

In the year , the United States drug-control budget reached In the year , 53 percent of the requested drug control budget was for enforcement, 29 percent for treatment, and 18 percent for prevention. Of that, a mere one percent was put towards prevention, treatment, and research. In a survey taken by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SAMHSA , it was found that substance abusers that remain in treatment longer are less likely to resume their former drug habits.

Of the people that were studied, 66 percent were cocaine users. After experiencing long-term in-patient treatment, only 22 percent returned to the use of cocaine.

Treatment had reduced the number of cocaine abusers by two-thirds. In the federal government issued the National Drug Control Strategy. It supported programs designed to expand treatment options, enhance treatment delivery, and improve treatment outcomes. ATR is a program that provides vouchers to addicts to provide them with the means to acquire clinical treatment or recovery support.

The project's goals are to expand capacity, support client choice, and increase the array of faith-based and community-based providers for clinical treatment and recovery support services. The Strategy additionally declared a significant 32 million dollar raise in the Drug Courts Program, which provides drug offenders with alternatives to incarceration.

As a substitute for imprisonment, drug courts identify substance-abusing offenders and place them under strict court monitoring and community supervision, as well as provide them with long-term treatment services. Additionally, enrolling an addict in a drug court program costs much less than incarcerating one in prison. Describing the failure of the War on Drugs, New York Times columnist Eduardo Porter noted:.

Many believe that the War on Drugs has been costly and ineffective largely because inadequate emphasis is placed on treatment of addiction. The United States leads the world in both recreational drug usage and incarceration rates. Chiquita From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Campaign of drug prohibition led by the United States federal government. For other uses, see War on drugs disambiguation. War on drugs Colin Powell , then the United States Secretary of State , visiting Colombia in the early s as part of the United States' support of Plan Colombia [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Date Term coined June 18, Location Global. Operations in the War on Drugs. Main article: History of United States drug prohibition. See also: Legal history of cannabis in the United States.

Main article: Race and the War on Drugs. Main articles: Operation Just Cause and Operation Nifty Package. Main articles: Plan Colombia and Paramilitarism in Colombia. United States involvement in Colombia Part of the Colombian armed conflict. War on drugs Plan Colombia Plan Patriota Human Rights reports Military relations. Main article: Plan Colombia § Fumigation strategy and criticisms. Further information: Arguments for and against drug prohibition. Further information: Allegations of CIA drug trafficking.

Further information: CIA and Contras cocaine trafficking in the US. Further information: Collaborations between the United States government and Italian Mafia. Main article: Legality of the War on Drugs.

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Anslinger Military Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies Act CIA transnational anti-crime and anti-drug activities Plan Colombia UMOPAR Air Bridge Denial Program Government agencies and laws Continuing Criminal Enterprise Marijuana Control, Regulation, and Education Act Office of National Drug Control Policy United Nations Drug Control Programme.

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SCO , The SCO Group , and The TSG Group are the various names of an American software company in existence from to that became known for owning Unix operating system assets that had belonged to the Santa Cruz Operation original SCO , including the UnixWare and OpenServer technologies, and then, under CEO Darl McBride , pursuing a series of high-profile legal battles known as the SCO-Linux controversies.

The SCO Group began in with a renaming of Caldera International , accompanied by McBride becoming CEO and a major change in business strategy and direction.

The SCO brand was re-emphasized and new releases of UnixWare and OpenServer came out. The company also attempted some initiatives in the e-commerce space with the SCOBiz and SCOx programs.

In , the SCO Group claimed that the increasingly popular free Linux operating system contained substantial amounts of Unix code that IBM had improperly put there. The SCOsource division was created to monetize the company's intellectual property by selling Unix license rights to use Linux.

The SCO v. IBM lawsuit was filed, asking for billion-dollar damages and setting off one of the top technology battles in the history of the industry. By a year later, four additional lawsuits had been filed involving the company. Reaction to SCO's actions from the free and open source software community was intensely negative and the general IT industry was not enamored of the actions either. SCO soon became, as Businessweek headlined, "The Most Hated Company In Tech".

SCO Group stock rose rapidly during , but then SCOsource revenue became erratic and the stock began a long fall. Despite the industry's attention to the lawsuits, SCO continued to maintain a product focus as well, putting out a major new release of OpenServer that incorporated the UnixWare kernel inside it.

SCO also made a major push in the burgeoning smartphones space, launching the Me Inc. platform for mobility services. But despite these actions, the company steadily lost money and shrank in size. In , SCO suffered a major adverse ruling in the SCO v. Novell case that rejected SCO's claim of ownership of Unix-related copyrights and undermined much of the rest of its legal position.

The company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection soon after and attempted to continue operations. Its mobility and Unix software assets were sold off in , to McBride and UnXis respectively. Renamed to The TSG Group, the company converted to Chapter 7 bankruptcy in A portion of the SCO v. IBM case continued on until , when a settlement was reached for a tiny fraction of what The SCO Group had initially sued for.

The Santa Cruz Operation had been an American software company, founded in in Santa Cruz, California , that found success during the s and s selling Unix -based operating system products for Intel x86 -based server systems.

SCO built a large community of value-added resellers that eventually became 15, strong and many of its sales of its SCO OpenServer product to small and medium-sized businesses went through those resellers. But beginning in the late s, SCO faced increasingly severe competitive pressure, on one side from Microsoft's Windows NT and its successors and on the other side from the free and open source Linux.

Caldera, based in Lindon, Utah , [2] had been in the business of selling its OpenLinux product but had never been profitable.

It attempted to make a combined business out of Linux and Unix but failed to make headway and had suffered continuing financial difficulties. By June its stock was facing a second delisting notice from NASDAQ and the company had less than four months' cash for operations. On June 27, , Caldera International had a change in management, with Darl McBride , formerly an executive with Novell , FranklinCovey , and several start-ups, taking over as CEO from Caldera co-founder Ransom Love.

Change under McBride happened quickly. On August 26, , he announced at the company's annual Forum conference in Las Vegas that Caldera International was changing its name to The SCO Group. The change back to a SCO-based name reflected recognition of the reality that almost all of the company's revenue was coming from Unix, not Linux, products. McBride emphasized that the OpenServer product was still selling: "What is it with the OpenServer phenomenon? We can't kill it. The customers want to give us money for it.

Why don't we just sell it? The product name Caldera OpenLinux became "SCO Linux powered by UnitedLinux" and all other Caldera branded names were changed as well. Announcements were made that a new OpenServer release, 5. In addition to reviving SCO's longtime operating system products, the SCO Group also announced a new venture, SCOBiz. com, founded in by John Wall, in which SCO partners could sell Vista.

com's online, web-based e-commerce development and hosting service targeted at small and medium-sized businesses. com e-commerce front-ends to communicate with existing back-end SCO-based applications. Lastly, SCO announced a new program for partners, called SCOx. The previously announced operating system releases began appearing, beginning with a Linux release. Caldera International had been one of the founders of the United Linux initiative, along with SuSE , Conectiva , and Turbolinux , and the newly-named SCO Linux 4 came out in November , in conjunction with each of the other vendors releasing their versions of the United Linux 1.

The new Unix operating system releases then came out. UnixWare 7. The SCOx software framework was announced in April ; its aim was to enable the SCO developer and reseller community to be able to connect web services and web-based presentation layers to the over 4, different applications that ran small and midsize businesses and branch offices. But by then, these software releases and e-commerce initiatives had become overshadowed by legal actions.

As soon as McBride became the head of Caldera International, he became interested in what intellectual property the company possessed.

So in , McBride said he had thought: "In theory, there should be some value to that property — somewhere between a million and a billion [dollars], right? I just wanted to know what real, tangible intellectual property value the company held. In particular, from the start of his time as CEO, McBride had considered the possibility of claiming ownership of some of the code within Linux.

You don't want to take on the entire Linux community. If we own the source, we are entitled to collect the agreed license fees. By October , McBride had created an internal organization "to formalize the licensing of our intellectual property"; this effort was provisionally called SCO Tech. By the end of , McBride and SCO had sought out the services of David Boies of the law firm Boies, Schiller and Flexner as part of an effort to litigate against what it saw was unrightful use of its intellectual property.

federal government's successful prosecution of Microsoft in United States v. Microsoft Corp. Gore Florida election dispute. News of the SCO Group's intent to take action regarding Linux first broke on January 10, , in a column by technology reporter Maureen O'Gara of Linuxgram that appeared in Client Server News and Linux Business Week.

On January 22, , creation of the SCOsource division of the company, to manage the licensing of the company's Unix-related intellectual property, was officially announced, as was the hiring of Boies to investigate and oversee legal protection of that property. IBM case was underway; it would come to be considered one of the top technology battles of all time.

Many industry analysts were not impressed by the lawsuit, with one saying, "It's a fairly end-of-life move for the stockholders and managers of that company. This is a way of salvaging value out of the SCO franchise they can't get by winning in the marketplace.

In mid-May , SCO sent a letter to some 1, companies, cautioning them that using Linux could put them in legal jeopardy. At the same time, SCO announced it would stop selling its own SCO Linux product. A few days later, Microsoft — which had long expressed disdain for Linux — said it was acquiring a Unix license from SCO, [45] in order to ensure interoperability with its own products and to ward off any questions about rights.

On May 28, , Novell counterattacked, saying its sale of the Unix business to the Santa Cruz Operation back in did not include the Unix software copyrights, and thus that the SCO Group's legal position was empty. Novell and the SCO Group quickly fell into a vocal dispute that revolved around the interpretation of the asset-transfer agreement between them.

In July , SCO began offering UnixWare licenses for commercial Linux users, stating that "SCO will hold harmless commercial Linux customers that purchase a UnixWare license against any past copyright violations, and for any future use of Linux in a run-only, binary format.

Another counterattack came in August , when Red Hat, Inc. SCO Group, Inc. was filed by the largest of the Linux distribution companies. Novell continued to insist that it owned the copyrights to Unix. While Novell no longer had a commercial interest in Unix technology itself, it did want to clear the way for Linux, having recently purchased SuSE Linux , the second largest of commercial Linux distributions at the time. Novell court case was underway. Lawsuits against two Linux end users, [53] SCO Group, Inc.

DaimlerChrysler Corp. and SCO v. AutoZone were filed on March 3, In any case, the stage was set for the next several years' worth of court filings, depositions, hearings, interim rulings, and so on. In July , the SCO Group announced it had acquired Vultus Inc. for an unspecified price. The acquisition of Vultus resulted in a shift of emphasis in the company's web services initiative, with an announcement being made in August at SCO Forum that SCOx would now be a web services-based Application Substrate, featuring a combination of tools and APIs from Vultus's WebFace suite and from Ericom Software 's Host Publisher development framework.

A year later, in September , this idea materialized when the SCOx Web Services Substrate WSS was released for UnixWare 7. In the keynote address at its SCO Forum conference in August , held at the MGM Grand Las Vegas , the SCO Group made an expansive defense of its legal actions.

Linux advocates had repeatedly asked SCO to enumerate and show the specific areas of code in Linux that SCO thought were infringing on Unix. However during Forum, SCO did publicly show several alleged examples of illegal copying of copyright code in Linux. Until that time, these examples had only been available to people who signed a non-disclosure agreement , which had prohibited them from revealing the information shown to them.

SCO claimed the infringements were divided into four separate categories: literal copying, obfuscation, derivative works, and non-literal transfers. The example used by SCO to demonstrate literal copying became known as the atemalloc example. While the name of the original contributor was not revealed by SCO, quick analysis of the code in question pointed to SGI.

At this time it was also revealed that the code had already been removed from the Linux kernel, because it duplicated already existing functions. By early , the small amount of evidence that had been presented publicly was viewed as inconclusive by lawyers and software professionals who were not partisan to either side. In any case, while Linux customers may not have been happy about the concerns and threats that the SCO Group was raising, it was unclear whether that was slowing their adoption of Linux; some business media reports indicated that it was, [68] or that it might, [47] while others indicated that it was not.

The stakes were high in the battle the SCO Group had started, involving the future of Unix, Linux, and open source software in general. There's nothing like a good legal battle to whip up passions, and the SCO Group-versus-the-open-source-world dogfight is no exception.

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